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What is the operating system, and How it works?

Do you know what the operating system is? Even if you don’t know, there is no reason to Worry. We will share every detail about the operating system in this post. So read this article.

As if we knew that we are human and that a human has a heart? Do you know, How a human heart works? Maybe you don’t know either.

I am talking about the human heart because, in technical terms, a computer also has a soul. We are called the Operating System (OS) of the computer.

Every time you use a mobile device or computer, you always talk about Android, Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. Then, all these names belong to the operating system. Sometimes we called it Android KitKat, sometimes Android Oreo, or if you talk about Windows, Maybe everyone knows Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, etc. The same happens in Mac OS.

But everyone has a lot of knowledge about all this. But nobody knows what the work of this operating system means for the heart of a computer. In a small sensation, I would like to tell you that an operating system is a type of interface between the end-user and the hardware.

By the way, if you don’t know more about it, and how they use, where they are using, what their main functions are, then what is the operating system of this article. We will have to read it thoroughly. Let’s start without delay and get to know the operating system.

What is the operating system

What is an Operative System?

The operating system is also known as system software. Most people also speak OS by their short name. It is also called the heart of the computer. An operating system is system software that works as the interface between the user means that you and the computer hardware.

I explain this sentence directly, every time you run the computer, then this operating system gives you the means to use the computer. While listening to the song, double-click on the Word document, sit with three-four windows, type something on the keyboard and save a file on the computer. You can never do all this without the operating system.

So, this operating system is the software with which you run your computer. Then, every time you buy a new computer, you must first load Windows 8 or Windows10 on it from the merchant and then take the computer home. Otherwise, without the operating system, you can never turn on your computer.

This is also a question, why is it called System Software? If you want to run the User Software means Application Software on the computer, then they can never be run without the OS.

This operating system helps you use your computer hardware well. The operating system mainly does the same thing that takes something from the keyboard, processes the instructions and sends the output to the computer screen.

You see this operating system only when you turn on the computer and when you turn it off. You live as Game, MS Word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media Player, Photoshop and within a large number of Computer Software. To run these, you need a massive program or software that we call the Operating System.

The name of the operating system used in Mobile is Android, which everyone knows. He must have known what the operating system is, so let’s get to know some of his work.

Operating system functions?

Operating system functions?

By the way, the computer does a lot of work, but first, when you turn on the computer, then the operating system first loads into the main memory mean RAM, and after that, this user software allocates all the hardware it needs from the cone. Below are the different functions of the operating system, learn more about them in detail.

  1. Memory management
  2. Processor management (process programming)
  3. Device management
  4. File management
  5. Security
  6. See system performance
  7. Error report
  8. Create synergy between software and user

Memory management

Memory management means the control of primary and secondary memory. Main memory means that RAM is bytes of a vast array.

Which means there are many small blocks in memory where we can store some data. Where there is an address of each slot, the main memory is the fastest running memory that CPU Direct uses because all the programs that run the CPU are only in the main memory.

The operating system does all this work.

  • What memory of the main memory will use, which will not, how much will be, how much will not be?
  • In multiprocessing, the operating system decides which process will give memory and how much will give.
  • When the operating system requests process memory, the memory operating system provides it (process means a task or a small task that is performing inside the computer).
  • When the process finishes its work, the operating system recovers its memory.

Processor management (process programming)

When it is multiple programming environments, the operating system decides which process the processor will obtain and who will not receive it and for how long.

This process is called Process Programming. The operating system makes all this work.

  • The operating system also sees. If the processor is empty or doing some work, or if it is free and if the process has finished its task or not. If you wish, you can see every detail in the Task Manager how many jobs are performing. The program that has done this work called Traffic Controller.
  • CPU Assign the process.
  • When the work of a Process is finished, it places the Processor in another job. If nothing is doing, releases the Processor.

Device management

If you use a driver on your computer, then you would know that, such as the sound controller, the Bluetooth controller, the graphics controller, the WiFi controller, but it helps to run different input/output devices, but these drivers The operating system runs.

So, let’s see what this operating system does.

  • Track all the computing devices and the name of the program that performs this task is I / O Controller.
  • Just as different processes need devices to perform some tasks, the operating system also does the job of the Assign device. Take an example. A process has to perform some tasks such as playing video, not eliminating printing. Then both tasks will perform with the help of Output Device Monitor, printer. Then, when both devices have to deliver the process, it works by the operating system.
  • When the process is finishing, deallocate the device.

File management

Organizing all directories in a single file. Because of this, we can easily find the data. So, let us know what the function of the operating system in file management is.

  • Organize information, location and status. See all file systems.
  • Who will get what resource?
  • Resource deallocation.


When you turn on your computer, request that password, this means that the operating system prevents your system from having unauthenticated access. This keeps your computer safe. If someone tries to open it. It will not open.

See system performance

Analyze computer performance and improve the system. The operating system records how long it takes to deliver a service.

Error report

If there are many errors in the system, the operating system detects them and recovers them.

  • Create synergy between software and user
  • The task assigns compiler, interpreter and assembler. It connects different programs to the user, which makes the user use the software better.
  • It provides communication between the user and the system.
  • The operating system is storing in the BIOS. The rest also makes the application easy to use.

operating system features

  • An operating system is also a collection of many programs that run other programs.
  • Control all input/output devices.
  • The operating system is responsible for running all application software.
  • Process programming means assigning and deallocating processes.
  • It informs you about errors and threats that occur in the system.
  • It establishes a good synergy between the user and the computer programs.

For now, everyone should know what the operating system does (a function of the operating system), so let us know how many types of operating systems there are.

Operating System Types

Technology is changing day by day, and everything is changing with it, so the use of the operating system is increasing in all fields, such as railways, research, satellite, industry, so you know how many types of operating systems there are.

  1. Batch Operating System
  2. Simple batch operating system
  3. Batch multiprogramming operating system
  4. Network operating system
  5. Multiprocessor Operating System
  6. Distributed operating system
  7. Timeshare Operating System
  8. Real-time operating system

1) Batch Processing Operating System

Batch processing operating systems were introduced to eliminate the problems of the previous era. If we talk about previous methods, it used to take more configuration time.

The main functionality of the batch processing system is to run the jobs automatically in a batch. The most crucial function in this work is the ‘Batch Monitor’ located at the lower end of the main memory.

i) Simple batch system

This is the oldest system. Which there was no direct connection between the user and the computer system. In this system, the user had to bring a storage unit to process the work or work and had to send it to the computer operator.

In this, all the works delivered to the computer in a batch or line. In a few days or a few months, it was a work process, and an exit device had an exit warehouse. This system used to process batch jobs. Hence its name will also be called operating system in batch mode.

ii) Multiprogramming batch systems

In this operating system, a job was generated from memory and executed too much. The operating system that processes a job, if the same task requires I / O, then the OS delivers the second job to the CPU, and the first one gets the I / O, so the CPU is always busy.

The number of jobs left in memory is always less than the number of posts that are on the disk. If many jobs remain on the line, the operating system decides which role will be processed first. The CPU in this operating system never stays inactive.

The timeshare system is also part of the multiprogramming system. The response time is much shorter in the timeshare system, but the CPU usage is more significant in multiple programming.


  1. There is no direct interaction between the user and the computer.
  2. The work that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait longer.

2) Network operating system

Its abbreviation is NOS, Do you know the full form of NOS? NOS’s full form is the “Network operating system.” This network operating system(NOS) provides its services to computers that are connecting to a network.

If you give them an example, then they come in access to shared files, shared software and printing capabilities.

NOS is a type of application that allows several computers to communicate simultaneously, share files and other hardware devices.

The previous operating systems of Microsoft Windows and Apple do not design for single computer use and network use. But as computer networks began to grow slowly and their use also began to grow, and such operating systems also began to develop.

A NOS (Network Operating System) has mainly two types: –

Peer-to-Peer OS (P2P), which is installing on each computer. The second is a client-server model, in which there is a machine server and other client software is establishing.

Types of network operating systems

if I Speaking about the type of network operating system, there are mainly two basic types, point-to-point NOS and client/server NOS:

  1. Point-to-point network operating systems allow users to share network resources stored in a common and accessible through network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally according to their functionality.
  2. Peer-to-peer works best in small to medium LAN networks, and its configuration is very cheap.
  3.  The client/server network operating systems provide users with access to all resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unifying under a file server, which can execute through individual actions of the client, so it must not be in any physical location.

Installing the client/server is very difficult while requiring a lot of technical maintenance. Also, it costs more.

Its significant advantage is that the network centrally controls in it. So that any change can make quickly, while new technology can also be incorporated.

We can show a network operating system based on a basic operating system that runs network devices, such as a router or firewall.

3) Multiprocessor system

All processors used in the multiprocessor system use shared physical memory. The computing power is fast. All these processors work under an operating system. These are some of its advantages.


  1. Very high speed because of multiprocessor use.
  2. If there are many tasks together, the system performance increases here. Which means how many work processes can do in a second.
  3. In this operating system, the task divide into subtask and each subtask assign to a different processor, especially that is why a task complete in a short time.

4) Distributed operating system

The sole purpose of using the Distributed Operating System is that the world has a powerful operating system and that the microprocessor has become very cheap, and that communication technology is improving.

Due to this progress, a distributed OS now made, which is very cheap and keeps the remote computer across the network. That, in itself, is a great achievement?


  1. All resources that are far away can easily use resources that are not empty.
  2. They are processing too fast.
  3. The load is very less on the host machine because the amount is more distributed.

5) Timeshare operating system

In this, the operating system provides some time to complete each task correctly, so that each job can complete successfully. At the same time, each user uses a single order from which the CPU gives time. This type of system call the Multitasking System.

At the same time, any task that can do can be of a single user or also of several users.

The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, after completing each task, the operating system starts the next job.


Let us know the benefits of the timeshare operating system.

  1. In this, the operating system has the same opportunity to complete each task.
  2. It is not easy to have software duplication. That is equal to none.
  3. The CPU downtime can quickly reduce.


Let us know the problems of the time the operating system shares.

  1. The issue of reliability is seen more in this.
  2. It takes care of the security and integrity of everything.
  3. The problem of data communication is a common problem in this.

Examples of a timeshare, operating systems are – Unix.

6) Real-time operating system

This is the most advanced operating system, which performs the process in real-time, which means that, if you leave missiles, train ticket reservation, satellite, if all this was delayed even for a second, this operating system does not remain inactive.

There are two types of these,

1. The hard operating system in real-time

This is the operating system, within which you give more time to complete the task.

2. Real-time smooth

In Soft Real-Time, the time constraint is a bit less, which happens if one Task is running, and another Task starts at the same time, the priority given to the new Task. This was information about the types of operating systems. Before this, you have come to know what is the operating system.

What is a client operating system?

A desktop computer is an independent computer processing unit. They are designed to perform automation tasks for users. A desktop computer is unique and best because it does not require any network or external component to function.

Most of this client’s operating system use on desktop computers or portable devices. This operating system is usually different from centralized servers because it only supports one user.

Smartphones and small computing devices use a client operating system. This operating system manages the device components, including printers, monitors and cameras. Each computer generally has a specific operating system.

These types of client operating systems provide multiprocessing power at a very minimal cost. The client operating system comes under Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android®.

Each operating system is designed to perform a specific function in specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the most crucial consideration, based on which an operating system for client computers select.

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